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27 Unicode, Wide Characters, and All That

Before we begin, note that this is an active area of language development in C as it works to get past some, erm, growing pains. When C2x comes out, updates here are probable.

Most people are basically interested in the deceptively simple question, “How do I use such-and-such character set in C?” We’ll get to that. But as we’ll see, it might already work on your system. Or you might have to punt to a third-party library.

We’re going to talk about a lot of things this chapter—some are platform agnostic, and some are C-specific.

Let’s get an outline first of what we’re going to look at:

Let’s dive in!

27.1 What is Unicode?

Back in the day, it was popular in the US and much of the world to use a 7-bit or 8-bit encoding for characters in memory. This meant we could have 128 or 256 characters (including non-printable characters) total. That was fine for a US-centric world, but it turns out there are actually other alphabets out there—who knew? Chinese has over 50,000 characters, and that’s not fitting in a byte.

So people came up with all kinds of alternate ways to represent their own custom character sets. And that was fine, but turned into a compatibility nightmare.

To escape it, Unicode was invented. One character set to rule them all. It extends off into infinity (effectively) so we’ll never run out of space for new characters. It has Chinese, Latin, Greek, cuneiform, chess symbols, emojis… just about everything, really! And more is being added all the time!

27.2 Code Points

I want to talk about two concepts here. It’s confusing because they’re both numbers… different numbers for the same thing. But bear with me.

Let’s loosely define code point to mean a numeric value representing a character. (Code points can also represent unprintable control characters, but just assume I mean something like the letter “B” or the character “π”.)

Each code point represents a unique character. And each character has a unique numeric code point associated with it.

For example, in Unicode, the numeric value 66 represents “B”, and 960 represents “π”. Other character mappings that aren’t Unicode use different values, potentially, but let’s forget them and concentrate on Unicode, the future!

So that’s one thing: there’s a number that represents each character. In Unicode, these numbers run from 0 to over 1 million.

Got it?

Because we’re about to flip the table a little.

27.3 Encoding

If you recall, an 8-bit byte can hold values from 0-255, inclusive. That’s great for “B” which is 66—that fits in a byte. But “π” is 960, and that doesn’t fit in a byte! We need another byte. How do we store all that in memory? Or what about bigger numbers, like 195,024? That’s going to need a number of bytes to hold.

The Big Question: how are these numbers represented in memory? This is what we call the encoding of the characters.

So we have two things: one is the code point which tells us effectively the serial number of a particular character. And we have the encoding which tells us how we’re going to represent that number in memory.

There are plenty of encodings. You can make up your own right now, if you want157. But we’re going to look at some really common encodings that are in use with Unicode.

Encoding Description
UTF-8 A byte-oriented encoding that uses a variable number of bytes per character. This is the one to use.
UTF-16 A 16-bit per character158 encoding.
UTF-32 A 32-bit per character encoding.

With UTF-16 and UTF-32, the byte order matters, so you might see UTF-16BE for big-endian and UTF-16LE for little-endian. Same for UTF-32. Technically, if unspecified, you should assume big-endian. But since Windows uses UTF-16 extensively and is little-endian, sometimes that is assumed159.

Let’s look at some examples. I’m going to write the values in hex because that’s exactly two digits per 8-bit byte, and it makes it easier to see how things are arranged in memory.

Character Code Point UTF-16BE UTF-32BE UTF-16LE UTF-32LE UTF-8
A 41 0041 00000041 4100 41000000 41
B 42 0042 00000042 4200 42000000 42
~ 7E 007E 0000007E 7E00 7E000000 7E
π 3C0 03C0 000003C0 C003 C0030000 CF80
20AC 20AC 000020AC AC20 AC200000 E282AC

Look in there for the patterns. Note that UTF-16BE and UTF-32BE are simply the code point represented directly as 16- and 32-bit values160.

Little-endian is the same, except the bytes are in little-endian order.

Then we have UTF-8 at the end. First you might notice that the single-byte code points are represented as a single byte. That’s nice. You might also notice that different code points take different number of bytes. This is a variable-width encoding.

So as soon as we get above a certain value, UTF-8 starts using additional bytes to store the values. And they don’t appear to correlate with the code point value, either.

The details of UTF-8 encoding161 are beyond the scope of this guide, but it’s enough to know that it has a variable number of bytes per code point, and those byte values don’t match up with the code point except for the first 128 code points. If you really want to learn more, Computerphile has a great UTF-8 video with Tom Scott162.

That last bit is a neat thing about Unicode and UTF-8 from a North American perspective: it’s backward compatible with 7-bit ASCII encoding! So if you’re used to ASCII, UTF-8 is the same! Every ASCII-encoded document is also UTF-8 encoded! (But not the other way around, obviously.)

It’s probably that last point more than any other that is driving UTF-8 to take over the world.

27.4 Source and Execution Character Sets

When programming in C, there are (at least) three character sets that are in play:

Your compiler probably has options to select these character sets at build-time.

The basic character set for both source and execution will contain the following characters:

a b c d e f g h i j k l m
n o p q r s t u v w x y z
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
! " # % & ' ( ) * + , - . / :
; < = > ? [ \ ] ^ _ { | } ~
space tab vertical-tab
form-feed end-of-line

Those are the characters you can use in your source and remain 100% portable.

The execution character set will additionally have characters for alert (bell/flash), backspace, carriage return, and newline.

But most people don’t go to that extreme and freely use their extended character sets in source and executable, especially now that Unicode and UTF-8 are getting more common. I mean, the basic character set doesn’t even allow for @, $, or `!

Notably, it’s a pain (though possible with escape sequences) to enter Unicode characters using only the basic character set.

27.5 Unicode in C

Before I get into encoding in C, let’s talk about Unicode from a code point standpoint. There is a way in C to specify Unicode characters and these will get translated by the compiler into the execution character set163.

So how do we do it?

How about the euro symbol, code point 0x20AC. (I’ve written it in hex because both ways of representing it in C require hex.) How can we put that in our C code?

Use the \u escape to put it in a string, e.g. "\u20AC" (case for the hex doesn’t matter). You must put exactly four hex digits after the \u, padding with leading zeros if necessary.

Here’s an example:

char *s = "\u20AC1.23";

printf("%s\n", s);  // €1.23

So \u works for 16-bit Unicode code points, but what about ones bigger than 16 bits? For that, we need capitals: \U.

For example:

char *s = "\U0001D4D1";

printf("%s\n", s);  // Prints a mathematical letter "B"

It’s the same as \u, just with 32 bits instead of 16. These are equivalent:


Again, these are translated into the execution character set during compilation. They represent Unicode code points, not any specific encoding. Furthermore, if a Unicode code point is not representable in the execution character set, the compiler can do whatever it wants with it.

Now, you might wonder why you can’t just do this:

char *s = "€1.23";

printf("%s\n", s);  // €1.23

And you probably can, given a modern compiler. The source character set will be translated for you into the execution character set by the compiler. But compilers are free to puke out if they find any characters that aren’t included in their extended character set, and the € symbol certainly isn’t in the basic character set.

Caveat from the spec: you can’t use \u or \U to encode any code points below 0xA0 except for 0x24 ($), 0x40 (@), and 0x60 (`)—yes, those are precisely the trio of common punctuation marks missing from the basic character set. Apparently this restriction is relaxed in the upcoming version of the spec.

Finally, you can also use these in identifiers in your code, with some restrictions. But I don’t want to get into that here. We’re all about string handling in this chapter.

And that’s about it for Unicode in C (except encoding).

27.6 A Quick Note on UTF-8 Before We Swerve into the Weeds

It could be that your source file on disk, the extended source characters, and the extended execution characters are all in UTF-8 format. And the libraries you use expect UTF-8. This is the glorious future of UTF-8 everywhere.

If that’s the case, and you don’t mind being non-portable to systems that aren’t like that, then just run with it. Stick Unicode characters in your source and data at will. Use regular C strings and be happy.

A lot of things will just work (albeit non-portably) because UTF-8 strings can safely be NUL-terminated just like any other C string. But maybe losing portability in exchange for easier character handling is a tradeoff that’s worth it to you.

There are some caveats, however:

And probably others I haven’t discovered. Let me know what pitfalls there are out there…

27.7 Different Character Types

I want to introduce more character types. We’re used to char, right?

But that’s too easy. Let’s make things a lot more difficult! Yay!

27.7.1 Multibyte Characters

First of all, I want to potentially change your thinking about what a string (array of chars) is. These are multibyte strings made up of multibyte characters.

That’s right—your run-of-the-mill string of characters is multibyte. When someone says “C string”, they mean “C multibyte string”.

Even if a particular character in the string is only a single byte, or if a string is made up of only single characters, it’s known as a multibyte string.

For example:

char c[128] = "Hello, world!";  // Multibyte string

What we’re saying here is that a particular character that’s not in the basic character set could be composed of multiple bytes. Up to MB_LEN_MAX of them (from <limits.h>). Sure, it only looks like one character on the screen, but it could be multiple bytes.

You can throw Unicode values in there, as well, as we saw earlier:

char *s = "\u20AC1.23";

printf("%s\n", s);  // €1.23

But here we’re getting into some weirdness, because check this out:

char *s = "\u20AC1.23";  // €1.23

printf("%zu\n", strlen(s));  // 7!

The string length of "€1.23" is 7?! Yes! Well, on my system, yes! Remember that strlen() returns the number of bytes in the string, not the number of characters. (When we get to “wide characters”, coming up, we’ll see a way to get the number of characters in the string.)

Note that while C allows individual multibyte char constants (as opposed to char*), the behavior of these varies by implementation and your compiler might warn on it.

GCC, for example, warns of multi-character character constants for the following two lines (and, on my system, prints out the UTF-8 encoding):

printf("%x\n", '€');
printf("%x\n", '\u20ac');

27.7.2 Wide Characters

If you’re not a multibyte character, then you’re a wide character.

A wide character is a single value that can uniquely represent any character in the current locale. It’s analogous to Unicode code points. But it might not be. Or it might be.

Basically, where multibyte character strings are arrays of bytes, wide character strings are arrays of characters. So you can start thinking on a character-by-character basis rather than a byte-by-byte basis (the latter of which gets all messy when characters start taking up variable numbers of bytes).

Wide characters can be represented by a number of types, but the big standout one is wchar_t. It’s the main one. It’s like char, except wide.

You might be wondering if you can’t tell if it’s Unicode or not, how does that allow you much flexibility in terms of writing code? wchar_t opens some of those doors, as there are a rich set of functions you can use to deal with wchar_t strings (like getting the length, etc.) without caring about the encoding.

27.8 Using Wide Characters and wchar_t

Time for a new type: wchar_t. This is the main wide character type. Remember how a char is only one byte? And a byte’s not enough to represent all characters, potentially? Well, this one is enough.

To use wchar_t, include <wchar.h>.

How many bytes big is it? Well, it’s not totally clear. Could be 16 bits. Could be 32 bits.

But wait, you’re saying—if it’s only 16 bits, it’s not big enough to hold all the Unicode code points, is it? You’re right—it’s not. The spec doesn’t require it to be. It just has to be able to represent all the characters in the current locale.

This can cause grief with Unicode on platforms with 16-bit wchar_ts (ahem—Windows). But that’s out of scope for this guide.

You can declare a string or character of this type with the L prefix, and you can print them with the %ls (“ell ess”) format specifier. Or print an individual wchar_t with %lc.

wchar_t *s = L"Hello, world!";
wchar_t c = L'B';

printf("%ls %lc\n", s, c);

Now—are those characters stored as Unicode code points, or not? Depends on the implementation. But you can test if they are with the macro __STDC_ISO_10646__. If this is defined, the answer is, “It’s Unicode!”

More detailedly, the value in that macro is an integer in the form yyyymm that lets you know what Unicode standard you can rely on—whatever was in effect on that date.

But how do you use them?

27.8.1 Multibyte to wchar_t Conversions

So how do we get from the byte-oriented standard strings to the character-oriented wide strings and back?

We can use a couple string conversion functions to make this happen.

First, some naming conventions you’ll see in these functions:

So if we want to convert a multibyte string to a wide character string, we can call the mbstowcs(). And the other way around: wcstombs().

Conversion Function Description
mbtowc() Convert a multibyte character to a wide character.
wctomb() Convert a wide character to a multibyte character.
mbstowcs() Convert a multibyte string to a wide string.
wcstombs() Convert a wide string to a multibyte string.

Let’s do a quick demo where we convert a multibyte string to a wide character string, and compare the string lengths of the two using their respective functions.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <wchar.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <locale.h>

int main(void)
    // Get out of the C locale to one that likely has the euro symbol
    setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

    // Original multibyte string with a euro symbol (Unicode point 20ac)
    char *mb_string = "The cost is \u20ac1.23";  // €1.23
    size_t mb_len = strlen(mb_string);

    // Wide character array that will hold the converted string
    wchar_t wc_string[128];  // Holds up to 128 wide characters

    // Convert the MB string to WC; this returns the number of wide chars
    size_t wc_len = mbstowcs(wc_string, mb_string, 128);

    // Print result--note the %ls for wide char strings
    printf("multibyte: \"%s\" (%zu bytes)\n", mb_string, mb_len);
    printf("wide char: \"%ls\" (%zu characters)\n", wc_string, wc_len);

On my system, this outputs:

multibyte: "The cost is €1.23" (19 bytes)
wide char: "The cost is €1.23" (17 characters)

(Your system might vary on the number of bytes depending on your locale.)

One interesting thing to note is that mbstowcs(), in addition to converting the multibyte string to wide, returns the length (in characters) of the wide character string. On POSIX-compliant systems, you can take advantage of a special mode where it only returns the length-in-characters of a given multibyte string: you just pass NULL to the destination, and 0 to the maximum number of characters to convert (this value is ignored).

(In the code below, I’m using my extended source character set—you might have to replace those with \u escapes.)

setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

// The following string has 7 characters
size_t len_in_chars = mbstowcs(NULL, "§¶°±π€•", 0);

printf("%zu", len_in_chars);  // 7

Again, that’s a non-portable POSIX extension.

And, of course, if you want to convert the other way, it’s wcstombs().

27.9 Wide Character Functionality

Once we’re in wide character land, we have all kinds of functionality at our disposal. I’m just going to summarize a bunch of the functions here, but basically what we have here are the wide character versions of the multibyte string functions that we’re use to. (For example, we know strlen() for multibyte strings; there’s a wcslen() for wide character strings.)

27.9.1 wint_t

A lot of these functions use a wint_t to hold single characters, whether they are passed in or returned.

It is related to wchar_t in nature. A wint_t is an integer that can represent all values in the extended character set, and also a special end-of-file character, WEOF.

This is used by a number of single-character-oriented wide character functions.

27.9.2 I/O Stream Orientation

The tl;dr here is to not mix and match byte-oriented functions (like fprintf()) with wide-oriented functions (like fwprintf()). Decide if a stream will be byte-oriented or wide-oriented and stick with those types of I/O functions.

In more detail: streams can be either byte-oriented or wide-oriented. When a stream is first created, it has no orientation, but the first read or write will set the orientation.

If you first use a wide operation (like fwprintf()) it will orient the stream wide.

If you first use a byte operation (like fprintf()) it will orient the stream by bytes.

You can manually set an unoriented stream one way or the other with a call to fwide(). You can use that same function to get the orientation of a stream.

If you need to change the orientation mid-flight, you can do it with freopen().

27.9.3 I/O Functions

Typically include <stdio.h> and <wchar.h> for these.

I/O Function Description
wprintf() Formatted console output.
wscanf() Formatted console input.
getwchar() Character-based console input.
putwchar() Character-based console output.
fwprintf() Formatted file output.
fwscanf() Formatted file input.
fgetwc() Character-based file input.
fputwc() Character-based file output.
fgetws() String-based file input.
fputws() String-based file output.
swprintf() Formatted string output.
swscanf() Formatted string input.
vfwprintf() Variadic formatted file output.
vfwscanf() Variadic formatted file input.
vswprintf() Variadic formatted string output.
vswscanf() Variadic formatted string input.
vwprintf() Variadic formatted console output.
vwscanf() Variadic formatted console input.
ungetwc() Push a wide character back on an output stream.
fwide() Get or set stream multibyte/wide orientation.

27.9.4 Type Conversion Functions

Typically include <wchar.h> for these.

Conversion Function Description
wcstod() Convert string to double.
wcstof() Convert string to float.
wcstold() Convert string to long double.
wcstol() Convert string to long.
wcstoll() Convert string to long long.
wcstoul() Convert string to unsigned long.
wcstoull() Convert string to unsigned long long.

27.9.5 String and Memory Copying Functions

Typically include <wchar.h> for these.

Copying Function Description
wcscpy() Copy string.
wcsncpy() Copy string, length-limited.
wmemcpy() Copy memory.
wmemmove() Copy potentially-overlapping memory.
wcscat() Concatenate strings.
wcsncat() Concatenate strings, length-limited.

27.9.6 String and Memory Comparing Functions

Typically include <wchar.h> for these.

Comparing Function Description
wcscmp() Compare strings lexicographically.
wcsncmp() Compare strings lexicographically, length-limited.
wcscoll() Compare strings in dictionary order by locale.
wmemcmp() Compare memory lexicographically.
wcsxfrm() Transform strings into versions such that wcscmp() behaves like wcscoll()165.

27.9.7 String Searching Functions

Typically include <wchar.h> for these.

Searching Function Description
wcschr() Find a character in a string.
wcsrchr() Find a character in a string from the back.
wmemchr() Find a character in memory.
wcsstr() Find a substring in a string.
wcspbrk() Find any of a set of characters in a string.
wcsspn() Find length of substring including any of a set of characters.
wcscspn() Find length of substring before any of a set of characters.
wcstok() Find tokens in a string.

27.9.8 Length/Miscellaneous Functions

Typically include <wchar.h> for these.

Length/Misc Function Description
wcslen() Return the length of the string.
wmemset() Set characters in memory.
wcsftime() Formatted date and time output.

27.9.9 Character Classification Functions

Include <wctype.h> for these.

Length/Misc Function Description
iswalnum() True if the character is alphanumeric.
iswalpha() True if the character is alphabetic.
iswblank() True if the character is blank (space-ish, but not a newline).
iswcntrl() True if the character is a control character.
iswdigit() True if the character is a digit.
iswgraph() True if the character is printable (except space).
iswlower() True if the character is lowercase.
iswprint() True if the character is printable (including space).
iswpunct() True if the character is punctuation.
iswspace() True if the character is whitespace.
iswupper() True if the character is uppercase.
iswxdigit() True if the character is a hex digit.
towlower() Convert character to lowercase.
towupper() Convert character to uppercase.

27.10 Parse State, Restartable Functions

We’re going to get a little bit into the guts of multibyte conversion, but this is a good thing to understand, conceptually.

Imagine how your program takes a sequence of multibyte characters and turns them into wide characters, or vice-versa. It might, at some point, be partway through parsing a character, or it might have to wait for more bytes before it makes the determination of the final value.

This parse state is stored in an opaque variable of type mbstate_t and is used every time conversion is performed. That’s how the conversion functions keep track of where they are mid-work.

And if you change to a different character sequence mid-stream, or try to seek to a different place in your input sequence, it could get confused over that.

Now you might want to call me on this one: we just did some conversions, above, and I never mentioned any mbstate_t anywhere.

That’s because the conversion functions like mbstowcs(), wctomb(), etc. each have their own mbstate_t variable that they use. There’s only one per function, though, so if you’re writing multithreaded code, they’re not safe to use.

Fortunately, C defines restartable versions of these functions where you can pass in your own mbstate_t on per-thread basis if you need to. If you’re doing multithreaded stuff, use these!

Quick note on initializing an mbstate_t variable: just memset() it to zero. There is no built-in function to force it to be initialized.

mbstate_t mbs;

// Set the state to the initial state
memset(&mbs, 0, sizeof mbs);

Here is a list of the restartable conversion functions—note the naming convension of putting an “r” after the “from” type:

These are really similar to their non-restartable counterparts, except they require you pass in a pointer to your own mbstate_t variable. And also they modify the source string pointer (to help you out if invalid bytes are found), so it might be useful to save a copy of the original.

Here’s the example from earlier in the chapter reworked to pass in our own mbstate_t.

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <wchar.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <locale.h>

int main(void)
    // Get out of the C locale to one that likely has the euro symbol
    setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

    // Original multibyte string with a euro symbol (Unicode point 20ac)
    char *mb_string = "The cost is \u20ac1.23";  // €1.23
    size_t mb_len = strlen(mb_string);

    // Wide character array that will hold the converted string
    wchar_t wc_string[128];  // Holds up to 128 wide characters

    // Set up the conversion state
    mbstate_t mbs;
    memset(&mbs, 0, sizeof mbs);  // Initial state

    // mbsrtowcs() modifies the input pointer to point at the first
    // invalid character, or NULL if successful. Let's make a copy of
    // the pointer for mbsrtowcs() to mess with so our original is
    // unchanged.
    // This example will probably be successful, but we check farther
    // down to see.
    const char *invalid = mb_string;

    // Convert the MB string to WC; this returns the number of wide chars
    size_t wc_len = mbsrtowcs(wc_string, &invalid, 128, &mbs);

    if (invalid == NULL) {
        printf("No invalid characters found\n");

        // Print result--note the %ls for wide char strings
        printf("multibyte: \"%s\" (%zu bytes)\n", mb_string, mb_len);
        printf("wide char: \"%ls\" (%zu characters)\n", wc_string, wc_len);
    } else {
        ptrdiff_t offset = invalid - mb_string;
        printf("Invalid character at offset %td\n", offset);

For the conversion functions that manage their own state, you can reset their internal state to the initial one by passing in NULL for their char* arguments, for example:

mbstowcs(NULL, NULL, 0);   // Reset the parse state for mbstowcs()
mbstowcs(dest, src, 100);  // Parse some stuff

For I/O, each wide stream manages its own mbstate_t and uses that for input and output conversions as it goes.

And some of the byte-oriented I/O functions like printf() and scanf() keep their own internal state while doing their work.

Finally, these restartable conversion functions do actually have their own internal state if you pass in NULL for the mbstate_t parameter. This makes them behave more like their non-restartable counterparts.

27.11 Unicode Encodings and C

In this section, we’ll see what C can (and can’t) do when it comes to three specific Unicode encodings: UTF-8, UTF-16, and UTF-32.

27.11.1 UTF-8

To refresh before this section, read the UTF-8 quick note, above.

Aside from that, what are C’s UTF-8 capabilities?

Well, not much, unfortunately.

You can tell C that you specifically want a string literal to be UTF-8 encoded, and it’ll do it for you. You can prefix a string with u8:

char *s = u8"Hello, world!";

printf("%s\n", s);   // Hello, world!--if you can output UTF-8

Now, can you put Unicode characters in there?

char *s = u8"€123";

Sure! If the extended source character set supports it. (gcc does.)

What if it doesn’t? You can specify a Unicode code point with your friendly neighborhood \u and \U, as noted above.

But that’s about it. There’s no portable way in the standard library to take arbirary input and turn it into UTF-8 unless your locale is UTF-8. Or to parse UTF-8 unless your locale is UTF-8.

So if you want to do it, either be in a UTF-8 locale and:

setlocale(LC_ALL, "");

or figure out a UTF-8 locale name on your local machine and set it explicitly like so:

setlocale(LC_ALL, "en_US.UTF-8");  // Non-portable name

Or use a third-party library.

27.11.2 UTF-16, UTF-32, char16_t, and char32_t

char16_t and char32_t are a couple other potentially wide character types with sizes of 16 bits and 32 bits, respectively. Not necessarily wide, because if they can’t represent every character in the current locale, they lose their wide character nature. But the spec refers them as “wide character” types all over the place, so there we are.

These are here to make things a little more Unicode-friendly, potentially.

To use, include <uchar.h>. (That’s “u”, not “w”.)

This header file doesn’t exist on OS X—bummer. If you just want the types, you can:

#include <stdint.h>

typedef int_least16_t char16_t;
typedef int_least32_t char32_t;

But if you also want the functions, that’s all on you.

Assuming you’re still good to go, you can declare a string or character of these types with the u and U prefixes:

char16_t *s = u"Hello, world!";
char16_t c = u'B';

char32_t *t = U"Hello, world!";
char32_t d = U'B';

Now—are values in these stored in UTF-16 or UTF-32? Depends on the implementation.

But you can test to see if they are. If the macros __STDC_UTF_16__ or __STDC_UTF_32__ are defined (to 1) it means the types hold UTF-16 or UTF-32, respectively.

If you’re curious, and I know you are, the values, if UTF-16 or UTF-32, are stored in the native endianess. That is, you should be able to compare them straight up to Unicode code point values:

char16_t pi = u"\u03C0";  // pi symbol

#if __STDC_UTF_16__
pi == 0x3C0;  // Always true
pi == 0x3C0;  // Probably not true

27.11.3 Multibyte Conversions

You can convert from your multibyte encoding to char16_t or char32_t with a number of helper functions.

(Like I said, though, the result might not be UTF-16 or UTF-32 unless the corresponding macro is set to 1.)

All of these functions are restartable (i.e. you pass in your own mbstate_t), and all of them operate character by character166.

Conversion Function Description
mbrtoc16() Convert a multibyte character to a char16_t character.
mbrtoc32() Convert a multibyte character to a char32_t character.
c16rtomb() Convert a char16_t character to a multibyte character.
c32rtomb() Convert a char32_t character to a multibyte character.

27.11.4 Third-Party Libraries

For heavy-duty conversion between different specific encodings, there are a couple mature libraries worth checking out. Note that I haven’t used either of these.

If you have more noteworthy libraries, let me know.

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